Download e-book for kindle: Advances in Sulphonation Techniques: Liquid Sulphur Dioxide by Navin G. Ashar
By Navin G. Ashar
This e-book provides a whole, in-depth research for at the impression of liquid sulfur dioxide and liquid sulfur trioxide to hold out complicated and hard sulfonations, in addition to manufacture of sulfuric acid with a CAPEX requirement of below part, a space requirement lower than one-third, and no emission of sulfur dioxide. The techniques defined during this quantity represents an cutting edge strategy proper to the present production techniques of sulfuric acid, sulfamic acid, para toluene sulfonic acid and different sulfonated product.
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Extra resources for Advances in Sulphonation Techniques: Liquid Sulphur Dioxide as a Solvent of Sulphur Trioxide
Apart from high cost of the plant, this process required special materials of construction like Hastelloy—C due to heavy corrosion. However, for the production of alkali sulphites and bi-sulphites, this process is still in operation in certain plants. This process is still in use for production of Sulphur dioxide in Canada for metallurgical plants. Due to high capital cost as well as maintenance cost, this process is now being replaced by direct reaction of liquid Sulphur with liquid SO3 as described in this document.
Grillo-Werke AG Grillo-Werke AG Marsulex Inc. Port Neches, Texas, USA Cairo, Ohio, USA New Caledonia 180,000 2010 Water absorption/stripping followed by drying and liquefaction ND 20,000 STPA 2 × 25 MTPD ND 2010 2010 React sulphur and sulphur trioxide ND ND Absorption Process PVS Chemical Solutions Inc. Sable Zinc Kabwe Teck Cominco Vale INCO Votorantim Metais Xstrata Copper Xstrata Zinc —Hinojedo Roasting Plant ND No Data Duisburg, Germany Frankfurt/Main, Germany Prince George, British Columbia, Canada Chicago, Illinois, USA ND ND Condensation process 90 MTPD 1989 36,500 STPA 2010 Partial liquefaction of high strength SO2 gas from sulphur burning Shut down in 2010 ND Kabwe, Zambia 6 MTPD 2007 ND Trail, British Columbia, Canada Sudbury, Ontario, Canada 88,000 MTPA 1999 Acidulation of ammonia from ammonia scubber bleed 400 MTPD 1999 Juiz de Fora, Brazil Timmins, Ontario, Canada 35 MTPD ND 1999 Compression and liquefaction of high strength metallurgical gases from Inco flash furnace ND 2010 Spain ND ND Partial liquefaction of high strength SO2 gas from metallurgical gases Liquefaction 38 5 World Production of Liquid SO2 and SO3 Any other process currently in practice requires higher utility costs.
5 % Sulphuric Acid which may have low resale value because of its colour and can be utilised in the manufacture of Phosphatic fertilisers only. Whereas in the process recommended in this document the liquid SO3 will be completely reacted and only occasionally the reactor will have to be drained for removal of unreacted impurities in the sulphur. The cost of sulphur trioxide which will be higher than oleum is to be balanced against the saving on interests, depreciation and maintenance of capital equipment as well as saving of utilities.
Advances in Sulphonation Techniques: Liquid Sulphur Dioxide as a Solvent of Sulphur Trioxide by Navin G. Ashar