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By Robert Maltby
Etymology - the learn of phrases specifically as regards to their derivations - used to be an immense point in old suggestion, beginning with Plato's Cratylus. within the Roman interval it grew to become much more major, partially due to the impression of Stoicism at the prior improvement of Roman legislation. The De lingua latina of M. Terentius Varro, a modern of a few of the significant classical Latin writers, is a wealthy shop of etymological thought and instance.
With the improvement of ancient philology within the 19th century, historical etymological perform got here to appear unscientific and therefore unworthy of significant realization. Classicists considered as ridiculous such derivations because the recognized ''lucus a non lucendo'' (a 'shady grove', from 'not being lit'); visible etymologies, frequently on right names, they tended to brush off as trivial wordplay, feeble punning, or mere ornamentation. yet newer scholarship has proven that etymologies in Latin and Greek poetry and prose diversity a ways past right names, and are not at all consistently noticeable. In an highbrow weather pleasant to diversified linguistic constructions, old etymologising is more and more getting used as a device within the examine of old literature, and the highbrow substructure of historical etymological thought is once more being taken heavily. however the historic assets for recognized etymologies are scattered and occasionally tough to refer to, and the bounds of the potential aren't regularly revered via literary students.
In A Lexicon of historic Latin Etymologies Robert Maltby presents an critical source for this box of enquiry. He has assembled the entire explicitly attested etymologies of Latin antiquity, from the predecessors of Varro to Isidore of Seville, overlaying glossaries and scholia in addition to usual historical etymological source-works. His coverage of quoting broadly, instead of summarising, unearths the relationships among historic gurus, and the reasoning in the back of a lot of their etymologies. the result's an important paintings of reference for you to ease proficient entry to this sector of historic technology.
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The idea of using the same knowledge base in a tutoring role is very attractive. This approach has been adopted in the GUIDON system (Clancey, 1978) where the knowledge base from the HYCIN medical consultation system was used in a tutoring system. The implementation of GUIDON was difficult because the knowledge base needed to be augmented by rules that described the logical connections between rules in the knowledge base. The major drawback of the GUIDON was that its implementation was tied to the MYCIN knowledge base; in other words, there was little attempt to address the design of an intelligent tutoring system.
Alternative pathways represent its capacity for response variation, and together with self-pacing are the chief means by which the system accommodates individual needs. In contrast, the capability of an ITS to construct an elaborated model of the learner as game player provides it with a perceptiveness of the learner's current state which is not normally achieved in CBI. The comparison with an Expert model enables the system to locate precisely the lacunae in the learner model and thus to identify the current personal needs of the learner.
At each stage, further aspects of the Learning Manager's function will be incorporated within the system. Each intermediate version will be tested in operation, and the empirical trials will serve in the identification of the next series of additions and modifications to the system. F'igure 6 illustrates this strategy (Thomas, 1976). It shows a learner in interaction with an intern\ediate version of the system. The human Learning Manager acts as a critical observer to his interaction, in order 38 RESEARCHER SOL MANAGER / ~ ) L -,----~' ITSSOL Figure 6 to identify shortcomings in the system.
A Lexicon of Ancient Latin Etymologies by Robert Maltby